What’s safe and what’s not

What’s safe and what’s not

Antidepressants

Flu jabs

Overheating

Antihistamines

Anti-diarrhoea medicines

Cold remedies

Painkillers

Cough medicines

Cystitis treatments

Heartburn and indigestion medicines

Laxatives

Skin

Thrush treatments

Smoking

Illegal drugs

Air pollution

Anaesthetic gases

Computer screens

Cat litter

Dry cleaning

Electric blankets

Flea spray

Hot baths, spa baths and saunas

Household cleaners

Painting

Air travel

Insect repellent

Lambs and other animals

Metal detectors at airports

Mobile phones

Sunscreen

Vaccinations

Botox

Electrolysis

Fake tans

Hair dyes and perms

Henna

Nail varnish

Perfumes and deodorants

Piercings

Sunbeds

Tattoos

Acupuncture / acupressure

Aromatherapy

Herbs

Homeopathy

Massage

Osteopathy / chiropractic

Reflexology

Page 365

Antidepressants

Mantle F, Tiran D. 2009. ‘A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: A guide for health professionals.’ Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier. p.168

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency/Commission on Human Medicines. 2010. ‘Fluoxetine: possible small risk of congenital cardiac defects.’ Drug safety update 3.

http://www.mhra.gov.uk

[Accessed September 2011]

Moretti ME, Maxson A, Hanna F, et al. 2009. ‘Evaluating the safety of St John’s Wort in human pregnancy.’ Reproductive Toxicology. Vol 28. Issue 1. p.96-9

Nakhai-Pour HR, Broy P, Bérard A. 2010. ‘Use of antidepressants during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion.’ Canadian Medical Association Journal.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2900326/

[Accessed September 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2007. ‘Antenatal and postnatal mental health.’ Clinical Guideline. Leicester: British Psychological Society and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. http://www.nice.org.uk

[Accessed September 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2009. ‘Depression: the treatment and management of depression in adults.’ Clinical guideline 90. http://www.nice.org.uk [Accessed September 2011]

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/fluoxetine.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 365

Flu jabs

Jit M, Cromer D, Baguelin M, et al. 2010. ‘The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza.’ New England Journal of Medicine. Vol 10. Issue 29. p.115-22.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21055501

[Accessed September 2011]

Mak T, Mangtani P, Leese J, et al. 2008. ‘Influenza vaccination in pregnancy: current evidence and selected national policies.’ The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Vol 8. Issue 1. p.44-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18156088

[Accessed September 2011]

Munoz F, Greisinger A, Wehmanen O, at al. 2005. ‘Safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy.’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. p.1098-1106

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15846187

[Accessed September 2011]

Myers ER, Misurski DA, Swamy GK. 2011. ‘Influence of timing of seasonal influenza vaccination on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in pregnancy.’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. p.128-40

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21640230

[Accessed September 2011]

NHS. 2009. ‘Seasonal flu jab.’

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Flu-jab/Pages/Introduction.aspx?WT.srch=1

[Accessed September 2011]

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010

http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/influenzavaccine.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

Pierce M, Kurinczuk J, Spark P, et al on behalf of UK Obstetric Surveillance System. 2011. ‘Perinatal outcomes after maternal 2009/H1N1 infection: national cohort study.’ British Medical Journal. Vol 342

http://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d3214.full

[Accessed October 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists/Department of Health. 2009. ‘Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza: Clinical Management Guidelines for Pregnancy.’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists/Department of Health.

http://www.nhs.uk/news/Documents/Swine%20Flu-%20Pregnancy%20Clinical%20Guidelines.pdf

Accessed via: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20091026113931/http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/index.htm

[Accessed September 2011]

Tamma PD, Ault KA, del Rio C, et al. 2009. ‘Safety of Influenza vaccine during pregnancy.’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 201. Issue 6. p.547-552

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19850275

[Accessed September 2011]

Zaman K, Roy E, Arifeen SE, et al. 2008. ‘Effectiveness of maternal influenza immunization in mothers and infants.’ New England Journal of Medicine. Vol 359. Issue 15. p.1555-64

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18799552

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Page 366

Overheating

Andersen AM et al. 2002. ‘Fever in pregnancy and risk of fetal death: a cohort study.’ Lancet. p.1552-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12443593

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010.

http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/hyperthermia.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 366

Antihistamines

British National Formulary. 2010. ‘Antihistamines.’

http://bnf.org/bnf/bnf/current/3018.htm#_204094

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010.

http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/loratadine.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 366

Anti-diarrhoea medicines

British National Formulary. 2010. ‘Loperimide hydrochloride (Imodium).’

http://bnf.org/bnf/bnf/current/2159.htm

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Page 366

Cold remedies

Drugs information online. 2007. ‘KarVol’

http://www.drugs.com/uk/karvol-decongestant-capsules-spc-10153.html

[Accessed September 2011]

Vicks vapour rub summary of product characteristics. 2012.

http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/20328/SPC/Vicks+Vaporub/#PREGNANCY

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Page 367

Painkillers

Nakhai-Pour HR, Broy P, Sheehy O, et al 2011. ‘Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion.’ Canadian Medical Association Journal.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21896698

[Accessed September 2011]

Prodigy. 2011. ‘Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (standard or coxibs) – prescribing issues.’

http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/nsaids_prescribing_issues/management/scenario_conception_pregnancy_and_breastfeeding#-493386

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 367

Cough medicines

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. ‘Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, and pregnancy.’
http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/pseudoephedrine.pdf
Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 367

Cystitis treatments

Prodigy. 2009. ‘Urinary tract infection (lower).’
http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/urinary_tract_infection_lower_women/prescribing_information/prescribing_information/trimethoprim/pregnancy_and_breastfeeding#-384783
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 367

Heartburn and indigestion medicines

Feldman M, Barnett C. 1995. ‘Relationships between the acidity and osmolality of popular beverages and reported postprandial heartburn.’ Gastroenterology. Vol 108. Issue 1. p.125-31

Prodigy. 2008. ‘Dyspepsia – pregnancy-associated.’
http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/dyspepsia_pregnancy_associated/evidence/supporting_evidence/safety_and_effectiveness_of_antacids_and_alginates#-322619
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 367

Laxatives

Prodigy. 2008. ‘Managing constipation in pregnancy.’
http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/constipation/management/scenario_pregnancy_or_breastfeeding/managing_constipation_in_pregnancy
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 368

Skin creams

Prodigy. 2010. ‘Psoriasis – prescribing information.’
http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/psoriasis/prescribing_information/prescribing_information/topical_corticosteroids/pregnancy_and_breastfeeding#-420668
[Accessed September 2011]

Prodigy. 2009. Acne vulgaris – prescribing information.
http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/acne_vulgaris/prescribing_information/prescribing_information/benzoyl_peroxide#-470651
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 368

Thrush treatments

Prodigy. 2007. ‘Candida – female genital: prescribing information.’
http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/candida_female_genital/drugs_in_this_topic/scenario_during_pregnancy#-297330
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 368

Smoking

Jia ZL, Shi B, Chen CH, et al. 2011. ‘Maternal malnutrition, environmental exposure during pregnancy and the risk of non-syndromic orofacial clefts.’ Oral Diseases. Vol 17. Issue 6. p.584-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535328

[Accessed September 2011]

Kristin B, et al. 2010. ‘The Effects of Prenatal Second-hand Smoke Exposure on Preterm Birth and Neonatal Outcomes.’ Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing. Vol 39. Issue 5. pp525-35

Leonardi-Bee J, et al. 2011. ‘Second-hand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in non-smoking pregnant women: a meta-analysis.’ Pediatrics, Vol 127. Issue 4. pp734-41
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21382949
[Accessed September 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2010.’ How to stop smoking in pregnancy and following childbirth.’
http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13023/49345/49345.pdf
Accessed via: http://publications.nice.org.uk/quitting-smoking-in-pregnancy-and-following-childbirth-ph26
[Accessed September 2011]

NHS information centre. 2011. ‘Infant feeding survey 2010: Early results.’
http://www.ic.nhs.uk/webfiles/publications/003_Health_Lifestyles/IFS_2010_early_results/Infant_Feeding_Survey_2010_headline_report2.pdf
Accessed via: http://www.ic.nhs.uk/pubs/infantfeeding10
[Accessed September 2011]

Royal College of Physicians. 2010. ‘Passive smoking and children.’
http://bookshop.rcplondon.ac.uk/contents/pub305-e37e88a5-4643-4402-9298-6936de103266.pdf
[Accessed September 2011]

Vieira AR. 2008. ‘Unravelling human cleft lip and palate research.’ Journal of Dental Research. Vol 87. Issue 2. p.119-25
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18218836
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 371

Illegal drugs

British Medical Association. 2007. ‘Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a guide for health professionals.’ British Medical Association.
http://www.bma.org.uk/images/FetalAlcoholSpectrumDisorders_tcm41-158035.pdf
[Accessed September 2011]

Drombroski MP, et al. 1991. ‘Cocaine abuse is associated with abruptio placentae and decreased birth weight, but not shorter labour.’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 77. Issue 1. pp139-41

Hannigan HE, Bowen SE. 2010. ‘Reproductive toxicology and teratology of abused toluene.’ Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine. Vol 56. Issue 2 pp184-200

Jones HE, et al. 1998. ‘Inhalant abuse in pregnancy.’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinics of North America. Vol 25. Issue 1. pp153-67

Keegan J, et al. 2010. ‘Addiction in pregnancy.’ Journal of Addictive Diseases. Vol 29. Issue 2. pp175-91

McElhattoon PR, et al. 1999. ‘Congenital anomalies after prenatal ecstasy exposure.’ The Lancet. Vol 354. pp1441-2

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman.’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.
http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11947/40145/40145.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/
[Accessed May 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2010. ‘Pregnancy and complex social factors: a model for service provision for pregnant women with complex social factors.’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.
http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf Accessed via: http://publications.nice.org.uk/pregnancy-and-complex-social-factors-cg110

[Accessed September 2011]

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. ‘Cocaine and Pregnancy.’
http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/cocaine.pdf
Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. ‘Methamphetamine/Dextroamphetamine and Pregnancy.’
http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/methamphetamine.pdf
Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2011. ‘Marijuana and Pregnancy.’ http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/marijuana.pdf
Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

Society of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists of Canada. 2011. ‘Substance use in pregnancy.’ Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. Vol 33. Issue 4. pp367–384
http://www.sogc.org/guidelines/documents/gui256CPG1104E.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.sogc.org/guidelines/index_e.asp

[Accessed September 2011]

Wehbeh H, et al. 1995. ‘The effect of recent cocaine use on the progress of labour.’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 172. Issue 3. pp1014-8

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Page 373

Air pollution

Bonzini M, et al. 2010. ‘Impact of ambient air pollution on birth outcomes: systematic review of the current evidences.’ Vol 101. Issue 5. pp341-63

Ghosh R, et al. 2007. ‘Does the effect of air pollution on pregnancy outcomes differ by gender?’ A systematic review. Environmental Research. Vol 105. Issue 3. pp400-8

Vrijheid M, et al. 2011. ‘Ambient air pollution and risk of congenital anomalies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.’ Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol 119. Issue 5. p.598-606

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Page 373

Anaesthetic gases

Motherisk. 2000. ‘Occupational exposure to inhaled anaesthetic.’
http://www.motherisk.org/updates/dec00.php3

[Accessed September 2011]

Shirangi A, et al. 2009. ‘Associations of unscavenged anesthetic gases and long working hours with preterm delivery in female veterinarians.’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 113. Issue 5. pp1008-17

Teschke K, et al. 2011. ‘Exposure to anesthetic gases and congenital anomalies in offspring of female registered nurses.’ American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol 54. Issue 2. pp118-27

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Page 373

Computer screens

Health and Safety Executive. 2011. ‘Working with VDUs.’

http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg36.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.hse.gov.uk/work-equipment-machinery/index.htm

[Accessed September 2011]

Health Protection Agency. 2003. ‘Health effects from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.’
http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1194947334474

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 373

Cat litter

Motherisk January 2006, Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.

http://www.motherisk.org/prof/updatesDetail.jsp?content_id=826

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 374

Dry cleaning

Motherisk. 1999. Exposure to organic solvents: Does it adversely affect pregnancy?’

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2328370/pdf/canfamphys00041-0045.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

[Accessed September 2011]

Stillerman KP, et al 2008. ‘Environmental Exposures and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review of the Science Reproductive Sciences.’ Vol 15. Issue 7. p.631-650

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Page 374

Electric blankets

Health Protection Agency. 2003. ‘Health effects from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.’

http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1194947334474

[Accessed September 2011]

Lee GM, Neutra RR, Hristova L, et al. 2000. ‘The use of electric bed heaters and the risk of clinically recognized spontaneous abortion.’ Epidemiology. Vol 11. Issue 4. pp406-15

Milunsky A, Ulcickas M, Rothman KJ, et al. 1992. ‘Maternal heat exposure and neural tube defects.’ The Journal Of the American Medical Association. Vol 268. Issue 7. p.882

Motherisk. 2003. ‘Exposure to electromagnetic fields during pregnancy.’
http://www.motherisk.org/women/updatesDetail.jsp?content_id=627

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. ‘Hyperthermia.’
http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/hyperthermia.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 374

Flea spray

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2003. ‘Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids.’

http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp155.pdf

Accessed via: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 375

Hot baths, spa baths and saunas

Chambers C. 2006. ‘Review article: Risks of hyperthermia associated with hot tub or spa use by pregnant women. Birth Defects Research (Part A).’ Clinical and Molecular Teratology, Vol 76 pp569–573

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16998815%5B

Accessed September 2011]

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Page 375

Household cleaners

Garlantezec R, et al. 2009. ‘Maternal occupational exposure to solvents and congenital malformations: a prospective study in the general population.’ Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol 66 (7) pp456-463

Henderson J, et al. 2008. ‘Household chemicals, persistent wheezing and lung function: effect modification by atopy?’ European Respiratory Journal. Vol 31 (3) pp547-554

Sherriff A, Farrow A, Golding J, et al. 2005. ‘Frequent use of chemical household products is associated with persistent wheezing in preschool-age children.’ Thorax Vol 60 pp45-49
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/15618582/?tool=pubmed
[Accessed September 2011]

Testud F, et al. 2010. ‘Pregnancy outcome after risk assessment of occupational exposure to organic solvents: a prospective cohort study.’ Reproductive Toxixology. Vol 30 (3) pp409-413.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20600819

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Page 375

Painting

Sørensen M, Andersen A-M, Raaschou-Nielsen O. 2010. ‘Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population.’ Environmental Research. Vol 110 (4) pp383-387

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Page 376

Air travel

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2009. ‘ACOG Committee Opinion No. 443: Air travel during pregnancy.’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 114 (4) pp954-955

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2008. ‘Air travel and pregnancy.’ http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/SAC1AirTravelPregnancy2008.pdf
Accessed via: http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/air-travel-and-pregnancy
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 378

Insect repellent

Dugas J, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Martinez D, et al. 2010. ‘Use of biocides and insect repellents and risk of hypospadias.’ Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol 67 (3) pp196-200.
http://www.press.psprings.co.uk

Health Protection Agency. 2008. ‘Bite prevention. Chapter 3 in Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom.’
http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1206520187821
[Accessed September 2011]

National Technical Information Service. 2007. ‘Use of insect repellents in pregnancy.’
http://www.toxbase.org/upload/Pregnancy%20pdfs/Insectrepellents2007.pdf
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 379

Lambs and other animals

Health Protection Agency. 2010. ‘Q&A: pregnant women and lambing season.’
http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases/InfectionsAZ/Lambing/GeneralInformation/lamb05LambingQA/

[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 379

Metal detectors at airports

Health Physics Society. 2011. ‘Pregnancy and security screening.’
http://hps.org/publicinformation/ate/faqs/pregnancyandsecurityscreening.html
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 379

Mobile phones

Brent R. 2011. ‘Pregnancy and radiation exposure.’ Health Physics Society.
http://hps.org/hpspublications/articles/pregnancyandradiationexposureinfosheet.html
[Accessed September 2011]

Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, et al. 2008. ‘Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioural problems in children.’ Epidemiology, Vol 19 (4) pp523-529

Divan HA, Kheifets L, Obel C, et al. 2010. ‘Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children.’ Journal of Epidemiogical Community Health.
http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2010/11/11/jech.2010.115402.abstract
[Accessed September 2011]

Department of Health. 2009. ‘Background context: mobile phones.’
http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Aboutus/MinistersandDepartmentLeaders/ChiefMedicalOfficer/CMOtopics/FeaturesBrowsableDocument/DH_5369548
[Accessed September 2011]

Health Protection Agency. 2011. ‘Health advice and mobile phones.’
http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/Radiation/UnderstandingRadiation/UnderstandingRadiationTopics/ElectromagneticFields/MobilePhones/info_HealthAdvice/
[Accessed September 2011]

Health Protection Agency. 2011. ‘Mobile telephony and health. Exposures from mobile phones.’
http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/Radiation/UnderstandingRadiation/UnderstandingRadiationTopics/ElectromagneticFields/MobilePhones/info_MobilePhones/
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 380

Sunscreen

British Association of Dermatologists. 2011. ‘Melasma.’
http://www.bad.org.uk/site/1233/Default.aspx
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 380

Vaccinations

Department of Health. 2011. ‘Immunisation against infectious disease. (The green book).’
http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh
Accessed via: http://immunisation.dh.gov.uk/category/the-green-book/
[Accessed September 2011]

Health Protection Agency. 2008. ‘Special groups (medical conditions) Chapter 6 in Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom.
http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1206520188365 [Accessed September 2011]

Health Protection Agency. 2011. ‘Vaccine in pregnancy surveillance.’
http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAweb&Page&HPAwebAutoListName/Page/1221202947595

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Page 381

Botox

De Oliveira Monteiro E. 2006. ‘Botulinum toxin and pregnancy.’ Skinmed. Vol 5 (6) p.308.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17086003
[Accessed September 2011]

Morgan JC et al 2006. ‘Botulinum toxin A during pregnancy: a survey of treating physicians.’ Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. Vol 77 (1) pp117-119.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16361610
[Accessed September 2011]

Yim L, Weir CR. 2010. ‘Botulinum toxin and pregnancy-a cautionary tale.’ Strabismus. Vol 18 (2) pp65-66.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20521881
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 381

Electrolysis

Schuster JE. ‘Guidelines ’97-’98 for Permanent Hair Removal Using the Electrolysis Modalities.’
http://www.clareblend.com/faq.htm#electro1
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 381

Fake tans

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. ‘Self-tanners, tanning pills, tanning booths and pregnancy.’
http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/selftanners.pdf
Accessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 382

Hair dyes and perms

Chua-Gocheco A, Bozzo P, Einarson A. 2008. ‘Safety of hair products during pregnancy: personal use and occupational exposure.’ Canadian Family Physician. Vol 54 (10) pp1386-1388
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18854462
[Accessed September 2011]

Nohynek GJ, et al. 2010. ‘Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.’ Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol 243 (2) pp239-259

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. ‘Hair treatments.’
http://www.otispregnancy.org/files/hairtreatments.pdf
ccessed via: http://www.otispregnancy.org/otis-fact-sheets-s13037#1
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 382

Henna

Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association. 2010. ‘Cosmetic products – ingredient labelling: help note for dermatologists.’
http://www.thefactsabout.co.uk/files/237201013545Allergy_Card.pdf Accessed via: http://www.thefactsabout.co.uk/
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 382

Nail varnish

Diamanti – Kandarakis E et al. 2009 Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: ‘An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement.’ Endocrine Reviews. Vol 30 (4) pp293-342.
http://www.endo-society.org/journals/ScientificStatements/upload/EDC_Scientific_Statement.pdf Accessed via: http://www.endo-society.org/journals/scientificstatements/ [Accessed September 2011]

European Union. 2008. ‘The cosmetics products (safety) regulations 2008.’
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2008/1284/pdfs/uksi_20081284_en.pdf Accessed via: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2008
[Accessed September 2011]

Health Protection Agency. 2008. ‘HPA compendium of chemical hazards: formaldehyde.’ http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1219908741042 [Accessed September 2011]

Health Protection Agency. 2010. ‘HPA compendium of chemical hazards: Toluene.’
http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1284473499738 [Accessed September 2011]

Swan SH, Liu F, Hines M, et al 2009. ‘Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys.’ International Journal of Andrology. Vol 32 pp1-9
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01019.x/abstract
[Accessed September 2011]

Zhang Y, Lin L, Cao Y, et al 2009. ‘Phthalate levels and low birth weight: a nested case-control study of Chinese newborns.’ Journal of Pediatrics. Vol 155 (4) pp500-504.
http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476 (09)00367-9/abstract [Accessed September 2011]

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Page 383

Perfumes and deodorants

Farrow A et al. 2003. ‘Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products.’ Archives of Environmental Health. Vol 58 (10) pp633-41

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Page 383

Piercings

Meltzer DI. 2005. ‘Complications of body piercing.’ American Family Physician. Vol 72 (10) pp2029-2034
http://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1115/p2029.html
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Mercier FJ, Bonnet MP. 2009. ‘Tattooing and various piercing: anaesthetic considerations.’ Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. Vol 22 (3) pp436-441.
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Page 384

Sunbeds

British Association of Dermatologists. 2011. ‘Melasma.’
http://www.bad.org.uk/site/1233/Default.aspx
[Accessed September 2011]

Organisation of Teratology Information Specialists. 2010. ‘Hyperthermia.’
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Page 384

Tattoos

Kluger N. 2010. ‘Body art and pregnancy.’ European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20557995
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Mercier FJ, Bonnet MP. 2009. ‘Tattooing and various piercing: anaesthetic considerations.’ Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. Vol 22 (3) pp436-441.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19384230
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 385

Acupuncture / acupressure

Pennick V, Young G. 2007. ‘Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001139
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001139.pub2/full
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Smith CA, Crowther CA. 2004. ‘Acupuncture for induction of labour.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1. Art. No.: CD002962.
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Smith CA, et al. 2006. ‘Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003521.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003521.pub2/abstract
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Page 385

Aromatherapy

Smith CA, et al. 2011. ‘Aromatherapy for pain management in labour.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD009215.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD009215/abstract
[Accessed September 2011]

Vakilian K et al. 2011. ‘Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial.’ Complement The Clinical Practice. Vol 17 (1) pp50-53
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21168115
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 385

Herbs

Festin M. 2009. ‘Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.’
http://clinicalevidence.bmj.com/ceweb/conditions/pac/1405/1405_I2.jsp
[Accessed May 2011]

Holst L, Haavik S, Nordeng H, et al. 2009. ‘Raspberry leaf: should it be recommended to pregnant women?’ Complement The Clinical Practice. Vol 15 (4) pp204-208

Leu S, et al. 2010. ‘Accelerated resolution of laser-induced bruising with topical 20% arnica: a rater-blinded randomised controlled trial.’ British Journal of Dermatology. Vol 163 (3) pp557-563. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09813.x.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20412090

Mantle F, Tiran D. 2009. ‘A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: a guide for health professionals.’ Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier

Matthews A, Dowswell T, Haas DM, et al. 2010. ‘Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD007575
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Midwives Information and Resource Service. 2008. ‘Prolonged pregnancy. Informed Choice for Professionals: 12.’ Bristol: Midwives Information and Resource Service

Simpson M, Parsons M, Greenwood J, et al. 2001. ‘Raspberry leaf in pregnancy: its safety and efficacy in labour.’ Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. Vol 46 (2) pp51-59

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Page 385

Homeopathy

Ernst E, Pittler M H. 1998. ‘Efficacy of homeopathic arnica: a systematic review of placebo-controlled clinical trials.’ Archives of Surgery. Vol 133 (11) pp1187-1190.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/cldare/articles/DARE-11998002055/frame.html
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Mantle F, Tiran D. 2009. ‘A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: a guide for health professionals.’ Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier

Seeley BM, et al. 2006. ‘Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.’ Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery. Vol 8 (1) pp54-59.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16415448
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Stevinson C et al. 2003. ‘Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomised placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery.’ Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Vol 96 (2) pp60-65.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12562974%5B
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 386

Massage

Furlan AD, Imamura M, Dryden T, Irvin E. ‘Massage for low-back pain.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD001929
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001929.pub2/abstract
[Accessed September 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007.’ Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth.’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.
http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf Accessed via: http://publications.nice.org.uk/intrapartum-care-cg55
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Smith CA, et al. 2006. ‘Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003521
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003521.pub2/abstract
[Accessed September 2011]

Young G, Jewell D. ‘Creams for preventing stretch marks in pregnancy.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1996, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD000066
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD000066/abstract
[Accessed September 2011]

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Page 386

Osteopathy / chiropractic

Mantle F, Tiran D. 2009. ‘A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: a guide for health professionals.’ Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier

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Page 386

Reflexology

Bamigboye AA, Smyth RMD. 2007. ‘Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy.’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1. Art. No.: CD001066
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001066.pub2/abstract
[Accessed September 2011]

Ernst E. 2009. ‘Is reflexology an effective intervention? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.’ Medical Journal of Australia. Vol 7191 (5) pp263-266.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19740047
[Accessed September 2011]

McNeill JA et al. 2006. ‘A retrospective cohort study exploring the relationship between antenatal reflexology and intranatal outcomes.’ Complement The Clinical Practice. Vol 12 (2) pp119-125.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16648089
[Accessed September 2011]

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