The third trimester

Your antenatal care

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman, Clinical guideline’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11947/40145/40145.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed May 2011]

Foods to choose

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. 2009. ‘Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines’ Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Resource sheet.

http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2009/Weight-Gain-During-Pregnancy-Reexamining-the-Guidelines/Resource%20Page%20-%20Weight%20Gain%20During%20Pregnancy.ashx

[Accessed June 2011]

Calcium

Duley L. 2011. ‘Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and hypertension (updated)’ British Medical Journal Clinical Evidence.

http://clinicalevidence.bmj.com

[Accessed June 2011]

NHS Choices. 2009. ‘Pre-eclampsia’

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Pre-eclampsia/Pages/Prevention.aspx

[Accessed July 2011]

Vegetarian Society. ‘Minerals A-Z’

http://www.vegsoc.org/page.aspx?pid=810

[Accessed July 2011]

Sex

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2011. ‘Placenta praevia, placenta praevia accreta and vasa praevia: diagnosis and management. Green-top guideline, 27’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists press.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/low-lying-placenta-after-20-weeks-placenta-praevia

[Accessed February 2013];

Buying for your baby

Breastfeeding

Midwives Information and Resource Centre (MIDIRS). 2011. The female breast: structure and changes in pregnancy and lactation.

http://www.midirs.org/development/studentmidwife.nsf/article/E4EA842C617D16258025789B0036FDA7?OpenDocument

[Accessed June 2011]

Formula feeding

UNICEF. 2010. ‘The health professionals guide to: “A guide to infant formula for parents who are bottle feeding”‘

http://www.unicef.org.uk/Documents/Baby_Friendly/Leaflets/3/health_professionals_guide_infant_formula.pdf

[Accessed July 2011]

Accessed via:

http://www.unicef.org.uk/BabyFriendly/Resources/Resources-for-parents/

Bathtime

Lavender T, Furber C, Campbell M, Victor S, Roberts I, Bedwell C, Cork MJ.Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial’ BMC Pediatr. 2012 Jun 1;12:59. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-59.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22656391

Car seats

Foundation for the study of infant deaths (FSID) 2010. ‘Is it OK for a baby to sleep in a car seat? Frequently asked questions’

http://fsid.org.uk/page.aspx?pid=426#mattress

[Accessed July 2011]

Kornhauser Cerar L, Scirica CV, et al 2009. ‘A comparison of respiratory patterns in healthy term infants placed in car safety seats and beds’ Pediatrics. Vol 124 (3) pp396-402.

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/3/e396.full.pdf+html

[Accessed July 2011]

Accessed via

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/124/3.toc

NHS Ayrshire and Arran. 2009. ‘Preventing positional plagiocephaly’

http://www.nhsaaa.net/media/17955/plagio.pdf

[Accessed July 2011]

Accessed via:

http://www.nhsaaa.net/

Slings

CPSC. 2010. ‘Infant deaths prompt CPSC warning about sling carriers for babies’

http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/prerel/prhtml10/10165.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Mattresses

Foundation for the study of infant deaths (FSID) 2010. ‘FAQS’

http://fsid.org.uk/page.aspx?pid=426#mattress

[Accessed July 2011]

Week 28

Indigestion

Rodriguez A, et al 2001. ‘Symptoms across pregnancy in relation to psychosocial and biomedical factors’ Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Vol 80, pp213-223

Anaemia

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2011. ‘Anaemia: iron deficiency’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/anaemia_iron_deficiency/view_whole_topic

[Accessed July 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman’ Clinical guideline. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

[Accessed July 2011];

Accessed via

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

Q&A

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2008. ‘Air travel and pregnancy’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/SAC1AirTravelPregnancy2008.pdf

[Accessed July 2011]

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/air-travel-and-pregnancy

Thinking ahead: your birth plan

Hamilton A. 2009. Comfort and support in labour. In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone

Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C and Weston J. 2011. ‘Continuous support for women during childbirth’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2. CD003766

Week 29

Pelvic pain

Jain S, et al 2006. ‘Review symphysis pubis dysfunction: a practical approach’

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1576/toag.8.3.153.27250/pdf

[Accessed July 2011]

Accessed via:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/tog.2006.8.issue-3/issuetoc

Kanakarus NK, Roberts CS and Giannoudis PV. 2011. ‘Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: an update’ BMC Medicine. Vol 9 (15)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3050758/?tool=pubmed

[Accessed July 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman, Clinical guideline’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

[Accessed July 2011] p113

Accessed via

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

Pelvic Partnership.

http://www.pelvicpartnership.org.uk/index2.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Vleeming A, Albert HB, Ostgaard HC, et al 2008. ‘European guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pelvic girdle pain’ European Spine Journal. Vol 17 (6) pp794-819.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518998

[Accessed July 2011]

Thinking ahead: support in labour

Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C and Weston J. 2011. ‘Continuous support for women during childbirth’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2. CD003766

Week 30

Fewer fetal movements

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier. p302

Heartburn

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2008. ‘Dyspepsia: pregnancy associated’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/dyspepsia_pregnancy_associated/evidence/references#-322619

[Accessed March 2011]

Feldman M, Barnett C. 1995. ‘Relationships between the acidity and osmolality of popular beverages and reported postprandial heartburn’ Gastroenterology. Vol 108 (1) pp125-131

Johnson T, Gerson L, Herschcovici T, et al 2010. ‘Systematic review: the effects of carbonated beverages on gastro-oesophageal reflux and disease’ Alimentary Pharmacology. Vol 31 (6) pp607-614

Rodriguez A, et al 2001. ‘Symptoms across pregnancy in relation to psychosocial and biomedical factors’ Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Vol 80 pp213-223

Braxton Hicks

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier pp191-192

Thinking ahead: massage in labour

Chang MY, Chen CH and Huang KF. 2006. ‘A comparison of massage effects on labour pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire’ The Journal of Nursing Research. Vol 14 (3) pp190-197

Simkin PP and O’Hara M. 2002. ‘Nonpharmacologic relief of pain during labor: systematic reviews of five methods’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 186 (5 Suppl) ppS131–59

Taghinejad H, Delpisheh A and Suhrabi A. 2010. ‘Comparison between massage and music therapies to relieve the severity of labor pain’ Womens Health (London, England) Vol 6 (3) pp377-381

Week 31

Measuring small or large for your dates

Small babies

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2002. ‘The Investigation and Management of the Small-for-Gestational-Age Fetus’ Clinical Green Top Guideline, 31.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/GT31SmallGestationalAgeFetus.pdf

[Accessed March 2011]

Large babies

Boulvain M, Stan CM, Irion O. 2001. ‘Elective delivery in diabetic pregnant women’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD001997/frame.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Boulvain M. 1998. ‘Induction of labour for suspected fetal macrosomia’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2.

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab000938.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2005. ‘Shoulder dystocia’ Clinical Green Top Guideline, 42.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/GT42ShoulderDystocia2005.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/shoulder-dystocia-green-top-42

Too little fluid (oligohydramnios)

Hofmeyr GJ, Gülmezoglu AM, Novikova N. 2002. ‘Maternal hydration for increasing amniotic fluid volume in oligohydramnios and normal amniotic fluid volume’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000134/frame.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Too much fluid (polyhydramnios)

Baker PN, Kenny LC. 2011. Obstetrics by Ten Teachers. 19th edition. Hodder Arnold. p49

Crafter H. 2009. ‘Problems of pregnancy’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed pp333-359

Thinking ahead: pain relief in labour

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. Clinical Guideline. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care/

Obstetric Anaesthetists’ Association. 2009. ‘Pain relief in labour’

http://www.oaa-anaes.ac.uk/assets/_managed/editor/File/Info%20for%20Mothers/PR_leaflets/2009_ed3_oct_oaa_pain_labour.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.oaa-anaes.ac.uk/content.asp?ContentID=115

Resuscitation Council (UK) 2010. ‘Newborn life support’

http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/nls.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.resus.org.uk/pages/guide.htm

Ullman R, Smith LA, Burns E, Mori R, Dowswell T. 2010. ‘Parenteral opioids for maternal pain relief in labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 9.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007396/pdf_standard_fs.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Epidural

Jain S, et al 2003. ‘Analgesic efficacy of intramuscular opioids versus epidural analgesia in labor’ International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. (83) pp18-27

Sharma SK, et al 2002. ‘Caesarean delivery: a randomised trial of epidural analgesia versus intravenous meperidine analgesia during labor in nulliparous women’ Anesthesiology. (96) pp546-551

Acupuncture

Smith CA, Collins CT, Cyna AM, et al 2006. ‘Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003521/pdf_standard_fs.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Homeopathy

Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser S, et al 2000. ‘The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice: an observational study’ Complementary Therapies in Nursing and Midwifery pp33-34

Smith CA. 2002. ‘Homoeopathy for induction of labour’ The Cochrane Library. Issue 3. Oxford Press

Hypnotherapy

Cyna AM, McAuliffe GL, Andrew MI. 2004. ‘Hypnosis for pain relief in labour and childbirth’ British Journal of Anaesthesia. Vol 83 pp505-511

http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/4/505.full.pdf+html

[Accessed February 2011];

Accessed via:

http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/content/93/4/505.long

Chyna AM, Andrew MI, McAuliffe GL. 2006. ‘Antenatal self-hypnosis for labour and childbirth: a pilot study’ Anaesthesia & Intensive Care. Australian Society of Anaesthetists pp464-469

Smith G. 2008. ‘Hypnobirthing: new learned behaviour for an ancient art’ Midwifery Matters. Vol 119 (10)

Reflexology

Mantle F, Tiran D. 2009. ‘A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: a guide for health professionals’ Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier

Smith CA, Collins CT, Cyna AM, et al 2006. ‘Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003521/pdf_standard_fs.html

[Accessed February 2011];

Accessed via:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD003521.pub2/otherversions

Week 32

Round ligament pain

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier. p190

Pregnancy rash

British Association of Dermatologists. 2007. ‘Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy’ http://www.bad.org.uk

[Accessed March 2011]

When to worry about itching

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2012. ‘Obstetric Cholestasis – Information for you’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

[Accessed 2012]

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/Obstetric%20Cholestasis_0.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/obstetric-cholestasis-information-you

Raspberry-leaf tea

Holst L, Haavik S, Nordeng H, et al 2009. ‘Raspberry leaf: should it be recommended to pregnant women?’ Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. Vol 15 pp204-208

Mantle F, Tiran D. 2009. A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: a guide for health professionals. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier

Midwives Information and Resource Service (MIDIRS) 2008. ‘Prolonged pregnancy – for professionals’ MIDIRS Informed Choice for Professionals. p12

Simpson M, Parsons M, Greenwood J, et al 2001. ‘Raspberry leaf in pregnancy: its safety and efficacy in labour’ Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. Vol 46 (2) pp51-59

Thinking ahead: caesareans

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2004. ‘Caesarean section’ Clinical guideline 13. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/NEBCSectionFull.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/caesarean-section-2004/

Week 33

Breech baby

Baker PN, Kenny LC. ed. 2011. Obstetrics by ten teachers. 19th edition. Hodder Arnold

Coates T. 2009. ‘Malpositions of the occiput and malpresentations’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Churchill Livingstone pp588-589

Lewis P. 2004. ‘Malpositions and malpresentations’ In: Henderson C, McDonald S. eds. Mayes’ Midwifery. 13th ed. Bailliere Tindall. p896

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘The management of breech presentation. Green-top guideline 20b’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/GtG%20no%2020b%20Breech%20presentation.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/management-breech-presentation-green-top-20b

Are there any risks with a breech baby?

Glezerman M. 2006. ‘Five years to the term breech trial: the rise and fall of a randomised controlled trial’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 194 (1) pp20-25

Hannah M, et al 2000. ‘Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial’ The Lancet. Vol 356 pp1375-138

Hofmeyr GJ, Hannah M. 2003. ‘Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 2

Midwives Information and Resource Centre (MIDIRS) 2009. ‘Breech presentation: options for care’ Informed Choice for Professionals. Vol 9. MIDIRS

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘The management of breech presentation. Green-top guideline 20b’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/GtG%20no%2020b%20Breech%20presentation.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/management-breech-presentation-green-top-20b

Turning a breech baby

de Meeus JB, Ellia F, Magnin G. 1998. ‘External cephalic version after previous caesarean section: a series of 38 cases’ European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Reproductive Biology. Vol 81 pp65-68

Hofmeyr GJ, Gyte GML. 2004. ‘Interventions to help external cephalic version for breech presentation at term’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000184/pdf_standard_fs.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Hofmeyr GJ, Gülmezoglu AM, Novikova N. 2002. ‘Maternal hydration for increasing amniotic fluid volume in oligohydramnios and normal amniotic fluid volume’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000134/frame.html

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘External cephalic version and reducing the incidence of breech presentation. Green-top guideline 20a’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/GTG20a14022011.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/external-cephalic-version-and-reducing-incidence-breech-presentation

Moxibustion

Coyle ME, Smith CA, Peat B. 2005. ‘Cephalic version by moxibustion for breech presentation’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 2.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003928/pdf_standard_fs.html

[Accessed March 2011]

van den Berg I, Bosch JL, Jacobs B, et al 2008. ‘Effectiveness of acupuncture-type interventions versus expectant management to correct breech presentation: a systematic review’ Complementary Therapies in Medicine. Vol 16 (2) pp92-100

Crawling

Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. 2000. ‘Cephalic version by postural management for breech presentation’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000051/pdf_standard_fs.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Hypnotherapy

Mehl LE. 1994. ‘Hypnosis and conversion of the breech to the vertex presentation’ Archives of Family Medicine (UNITED STATES) Vol 3 pp881-887

Breech vaginal birth

Cronk M. 1998. ‘Keep your hands off the breech’ Association in Improvements to Maternity Services. Vol 10 (3)

http://www.aims.org.uk/Journal/Vol10No3/handOffbreech.htm

[Accessed March 2011]

Midwives Information and Resource Centre (MIDIRS) 2008. ‘Breech presentation: options for care’

Royal College of Midwives. ‘Normal breech birth’ Royal College of Midwives, Campaign for Normal Birth.

http://www.rcmnormalbirth.org.uk/stories/do-as-you-would-be-done-by/normal-breech-birth/

[Accessed March 2011]

High blood pressure

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2010. ‘Hypertension in pregnancy: the management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Clinical guideline 107’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13098/50418/50418.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG107

Thinking ahead: helping your baby into a good position for birth

Hunter S, Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. 2007. ‘Hands and knees posture in late pregnancy or labour for fetal malposition (lateral or posterior)’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 4.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD001063/frame.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Week 34

Engaging

Viccars A. 2009. ‘Antenatal care’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Churchill Livingstone pp278-279

What to do if your waters break early

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘Preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes. Green Clinical Green Top Guideline 44’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Midwives.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/GT42ShoulderDystocia2005.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/preterm-prelabour-rupture-membranes-green-top-44

Thinking ahead: vitamin K

Department of Health. 1998. ‘Vitamin K for newborn babies’

http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4013398.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Lettersandcirculars/Professionalletters/Chiefmedicalofficerletters/DH_4004993

Fear NT, Roman E, Ansell P, et al 2003. ‘Vitamin K and childhood cancer: a report from the United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study’ British Journal of Cancer. Vol 89 (7) pp1228-1231

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/14520451/?tool=pubmed

[Accessed March 2011]

Golding J, Greenwood R, Birmingham K, et al 1992. ‘Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K and pethidine given during labour’ British Medical Journal. Vol 305 pp341-346

McNinch A. 2010. ‘Vitamin K deficiency bleeding: early history and recent trends in the United Kingdom’ Early Human Development. Vol 86. Suppl 1 pp63-65

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2006. ‘Routine postnatal care of women and their babies’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG37NICEguideline.pdf

[Accessed March 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.nice.org.uk/cg037

Puckett RM, Offringa M. 2001. ‘Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates’ The Cochrane Library. Issue 1.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD002776/frame.html

[Accessed March 2011]

Week 35

Feeling breathless

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier. p204

Perineal massage

Beckmann MM, Garrett AJ. 2006. ‘Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1.

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab005123.html

[Accessed July2011]

Beckmann MM, Garrett AJ. 2006. ‘Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1.

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab005123.html

[Accessed July2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

[Accessed June 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care/

Nipple piercings and breastfeeding

Hudson KL. ‘Nipple Piercing Questions and Answers’ Tattoo.about.

http://tattoo.about.com/cs/piercefaq/a/110603a_2.htm

[Accessed July 2011]

Meltzer DI. 2005. ‘Complications of body piercing’ American Family Physician. Vol 72 (10) pp2029-2034.

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2005/1115/p2029.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Thinking ahead: using a birth pool

Cluett ER, Burns E. 2009. ‘Immersion in water in labour and birth’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 2.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000111/frame.html

[Accessed July 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

[Accessed June 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘Immersion in water during labour and birth’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/immersion-water-during-labour-and-birth

[Accessed July 2011]

Week 36

The position of your baby

Hunter S, Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. 2007. ‘Hands and knees posture in late pregnancy or labour for fetal malposition (lateral or posterior)’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4. Art no CD001063 http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com

Sutton J. 1994. ‘Optimal fetal positioning: A midwifery approach to increasing the number of normal births’ MIDIRS Midwifery Digest. Vol 4 (3) pp283-286

Q&A

Arulkumaran S, Anandakumar C, Wong YC, et al 1989. ‘Evaluation of maternal perception of sound-provoked fetal movement as a test of antenatal fetal health’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 73 (2) pp182-186

Chutiwongse S, Tannirandorn Y, Sukcharoen N, et al 1991. ‘Maternal perception of sound-provoked fetal movement as a test of antepartum fetal wellbeing’ Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. Vol 74 (5) pp257-263

Hijazi ZR, East CE. 2009. ‘Factors affecting maternal perception of fetal movement’ Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Vol 64 (7) pp489-497

Tveit JV, Saastad E, Stray-Pederson B, et al 2009. ‘Reduction of late stillbirth with the introduction of fetal movement information and guidelines – a clinical quality improvement’ Bio Medical Central Pregnancy and Childbirth. Vol 9 (32)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2734741/pdf/1471-2393-9-32.pdf [pdf file,

Accessed December 2009];

Accessed via:

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2393/9/32

Starting your maternity leave

Directgov. ‘Statutory maternity leave’

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Moneyandworkentitlements/WorkAndFamilies/Pregnancyandmaternityrights/DG_10039631

[Accessed July 2011]

Thinking ahead: episiotomies

Frankman EA, Wang L, Bunker CH, et al 2009. ‘Episiotomy in the United States: has anything changed?’ American Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 200 (5) p573

Frass KA, Al-Harazi AH. 2010. ‘Episiotomy is still performed routinely in Yemeni women’ Saudi Medical Journal. Vol 31 (7) pp764-767

Hartley J. 2008. ‘Hospital slashes episiotomy rate’

http://www.arabianbusiness.com/hospital-slashes-episiotomy-rate-42172.html

[Accessed July 2011] “Episiotomies performed in the delivery unit at Al Wasl Hospital in Dubai have been cut from 64% to 17% in just one year, according to director of nursing Alison Ramsay.”

Midwives Information and Resource Service. 2007. ‘Positions in labour and delivery’

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

[Accessed July 2011] pp168-70;

Accessed via:

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NHS. The Information Centre. 2011. ‘Deliveries with episiotomy by method of delivery, 1975 to 2008’

http://www.hesonline.nhs.uk/Ease/servlet/ContentServer?siteID=1937&categoryID=1038

[Accessed July 2011]

Royal College of Midwives. 2007. ‘The second stage of labour; are we pushing too hard?’

http://www.rcmnormalbirth.org.uk/EasySiteWeb/GatewayLink.aspx?alId=88450

[Accessed July 2011]

Week 37

Urinating more often

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier pp206-210

Thinking ahead: fetal monitoring

Alfirevic Z, Devane D, Gyte GML. 2006. ‘Continuous cardiotocography (CTG) as a form of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) for fetal assessment during labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3. Art

Midwives Information and Resource Service (MIDIRS) 2008. ‘Fetal heart rate monitoring in labour’

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

[Accessed July 2011];

Accessed via:

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Neilson JP. 2006. ‘Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3

Week 38

Braxton-Hicks or the real thing?

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier pp191-192

McCormick C. 2009. ‘The first stage of labour: physiology and early care’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Churchill Livingstone. pp457-75

Murray I, Hassall J. 2009. ‘Change and adaptation in pregnancy’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Churchill Livingstone pp191-192

Thinking ahead: eating and drinking in labour

Gyte G. 2007. ‘NCT Evidence-based briefing: eating and drinking in labour’ New Digest pp25-29.

http://www.nct.org.uk/sites/default/files/related_documents/ND37.EBB (Eating_and_drinking_in_labour).pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.nct.org.uk/professional/research/reviews-evidence/nct-research-overviews

[Accessed July 2011]

Midwives Information and Resource Service (MIDIRS) 2008. ‘Mode of delivery and events around the second stage of labour’

Singata M, Tranmer J, Gyte GML. 2010. ‘Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003930/frame.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Week 39

Last minute changes in your body

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier. p457

Problems with the placenta

Baker PN, Kenny LC. ed. 2011. Obstetrics by Ten Teachers. 19th edition. Hodder Arnold pp168-170 & 276

Neilson JP. 2003. ‘Interventions for treating placental abruption’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2009. ‘Blood transfusion, pregnancy and birth: information for you’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/blood-transfusion-pregnancy-and-birth

[Accessed July 2011]

Q&A

Kavanagh J, Kelly AJ, Thomas J. 2005. ‘Breast stimulation for cervical ripening and induction of labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3

Schaffir J. 2006. ‘Sexual Intercourse at Term and Onset of Labor’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 107 (6) pp1310-1314

http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/fulltext/2006/06000/sexual_intercourse_at_term_and_onset_of_labor.16.aspx

[Accessed July 2011]

Tan PC, Andi A, Azmi, N et al 2006. ‘Effect of Coitus at Term on Length of Gestation, Induction of Labor, and Mode of Delivery’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 108 (1) pp134-140

http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/fulltext/2006/07000/effect_of_coitus_at_term_on_length_of_gestation,.22.aspx

[Accessed July 2011]

Week 40

Your waters breaking

Dare MR, Middleton P, Crowther CA, Flenady V, Varatharaju B. 2006. ‘Planned early birth versus expectant management (waiting) for pre-labour rupture of membranes at term (37 weeks or more)’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1

Hannah ME, Ohlsson A, Farine D, et al for the TermPROM Study Group. 1996. ‘Induction of Labour Compared with Expectant Management for Pre-labour Rupture of the Membranes at Term’ New England Journal of Medicine. Vol 334. pp1005-10

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199604183341601#t=articleResults

[Accessed July 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

[Accessed July 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care/

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Induction of labour’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG070FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/induction-of-labour-cg70

[Accessed July 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006 (Minor amendment 2010) ‘Preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes. Green-top guideline 44’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/GTG44PPROM28022011.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/preterm-prelabour-rupture-membranes-green-top-44

[Accessed July 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2008. ‘When your waters break early (preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes): information for you’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/when-your-waters-break-early-preterm-prelabour-rupture-membranes

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/when-your-waters-break-early

[Accessed July 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2009. ‘Umbilical cord prolapse in late pregnancy: information for you’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press

http://www.rcog.org.uk/umbilical-cord-prolapse-late-pregnancy-information-you

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/umbilical-cord-prolapse-late-pregnancy-information-you

[Accessed July 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2003. ‘Prevention of early onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/GT36SummaryGroupBStrep.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/prevention-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease-green-

[Accessed July 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006 (Minor amendment 2007) ‘Preventing group B streptococcus (GBS) infection in newborn babies: information for you’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/PIPreventingGBSInfection0107.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/preventing-group-b-streptococcus-gbs-infection-newborn-babies

[Accessed July 2011]

Vaginal examinations

McCormick C. 2009. ‘The first stage of labour: physiology and early care’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Churchill Livingstone, pp467-471

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

[Accessed July 2011];

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care/

Week 41 plus: being overdue

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11947/40145/40145.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed May 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Induction of labour’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG070FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/induction-of-labour-cg70

[Accessed July 2011]

NHS Information Centre. 2010. ‘NHS Maternity Statistics 2009-10; Explanatory notes’ Hospital Episode Statistics.

Maternity Statistics

[Accessed July 2011]

When might I be induced?

Cleary-Goldman J, Malone FD, et al 2005. ‘Impact of Maternal Age on Obstetric Outcome’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 105. (5) pp983-990. www.greenjournal.org

[pdf file 230KB; Accessed January 2008]

Gülmezoglu AM, Crowther CA, Middleton P. 2006. ‘Induction of labour for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 4.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD004945/frame.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Jolly M, Sebire N, Harris J, et al 2000. ‘The risks associated with pregnancy in women aged 35 years or older’ Human Reproduction. Vol 15. (11) pp2433-2437.

humrep.oxfordjournals.org

[Accessed January 2008]

Mandruzzato G, et al 2010. ‘Guidelines for the management of post-term pregnancy. Journal of Perinatal Medicine. Vol 38 (2) pp111-119

http://www.reference-global.com/doi/pdf/10.1515/JPM.2010.057

[Accessed July 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2008. ‘Understanding NICE Guidance: induction of labour’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/12012/41272/41272.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/induction-of-labour-cg70

[Accessed July 2011]

Sizer AR, Thomas SC, Lindsay PC. 2000. ‘The rise in obstetric intervention with maternal age: a continuous phenomenon’ Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 20 (3) pp246-249

Assessing your cervix

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier pp468-469

Some things to consider about induction

Baker PN, Kenny LC. ed. 2011. Obstetrics by Ten Teachers. 19th edition. Hodder Arnold. p220

NHS Information Centre. 2010. ‘Table 9: method of delivery by method of onset of labour, 2009-10’ In Maternity Statistics, 2009-10.

Maternity Statistics

[Accessed July 2011]

Rasmussen OB, Rasmussen S. 2011. ‘Caesarean section after induction of labor compared with expectant management: no added risk from gestational week 39’ Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. Vol 90 (8) pp857-862

Membrane sweeping

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2008. ‘Understanding NICE Guidance: induction of labour’ National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/12012/41272/41272.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/induction-of-labour-cg70

[Accessed July 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Induction of labour’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG070FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/induction-of-labour-cg70

[Accessed July 2011]

Prostaglandins

Dowswell T, Kelly AJ, Livio S, et al 2010. ‘Different methods for the induction of labour in outpatient settings’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 8

Kelly AJ, Alfirevic Z, Dowswell T. 2009. ‘Outpatient versus inpatient induction of labour for improving birth outcomes’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009. Issue 2.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007372/frame.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Amniotomy

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. Induction of labour’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG070FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/induction-of-labour-cg70

[Accessed July 2011]

Oxytocin drip

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. Induction of labour’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG070FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/induction-of-labour-cg70

[Accessed July 2011]

What can I do if I don’t want to be induced?

Driggers RW, Holcroft CJ, Blakemore KJ, et al 2004. ‘An amniotic fluid index < or =5 cm within 7 days of delivery in the third trimester is not associated with decreasing umbilical arterial pH and base excess’ Journal of Perinatology. Vol 24. Issue 2 pp72-76

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14762449

[Accessed July 2011]

Gülmezoglu AM, Crowther CA, Middleton P. 2006. ‘Induction of labour for improving birth outcomes for women at or beyond term’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 4.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD004945/frame.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Lam H, Leung WC, Lee CP, et al 2006. ‘Amniotic fluid volume at 41 weeks and infant outcome’ Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Vol 51 (6) pp484-488

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16846088

[Accessed July 2011]

Homeopathy

Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, et al 2006. ‘Safety and efficacy of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) during pregnancy and lactation’ Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Vol 13 (3) pp257-261

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17085773

[Accessed July 2011]

Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, et al 2008. ‘Safety and efficacy blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) during pregnancy and lactation’ Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Vol 15 (1) pp66-73

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18204101

[Accessed July 2011]

Kistin SJ, Newman AD. 2007. ‘Induction of labour with homeopathy: a case report’ Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. Vol 52. Issue 3. pp303-7

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17467597

[Accessed July 2011]

Mantle F, Tiran D. 2009. A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: a guide for health professionals. Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier

Smith CA. 2003. ‘Homoeopathy for induction of labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 4.

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab003399.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Breast stimulation

Kavanagh J, Kelly AJ, Thomas J. 2005. ‘Breast stimulation for cervical ripening and induction of labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3.

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab003392.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Sex

Kavanagh J, Kelly AJ, Thomas J. 2001. ‘Sexual intercourse for cervical ripening and induction of labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 2.

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab003093.html

[Accessed July 2011]

Acupuncture

Smith CA, Crowther CA. 2004. ‘Acupuncture for induction of labour’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 1. Art. No.: CD002962

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD002962/frame.html

[Accessed July 2011]

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