The second trimester

Your antenatal care

Villar J, Carroli G, Khan-Neelofur D, Piaggio G, Gülmezoglu M. 2003. ‘Patterns of routine antenatal care for low-risk pregnancy (Cochrane Review)’ In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2. Oxford: Update Software

When to call your midwife or doctor

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier pp335-358

Foods to choose

Zinc

Mahomed K, Bhutta ZA, Middleton P. 2007. ‘Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000230

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000230/frame.html

[Accessed April 2011]

Iodine

Lazarus H, Smyth PPA. 2008. ‘Iodine deficiency in the UK and Ireland’ Lancet Vol 37.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736 (08)61390-2/fulltext

[Accessed April 2011]

Rayman M, Sleeth M, Walter A, et al 2008. ‘Iodine deficiency in UK women of child-bearing age’ Proceedings of the Nurition Society. Vol 67. (OCE8)

http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FPNS%2FPNS67_OCE8%2FS0029665108000736a.pdf&code=e74e6ebcf046b7dfa8274c4fdfabca59

[Accessed April 2011]

Vanderpump M, Lazarus J, Smyth P, et al 2011 ‘Assessment of the UK iodine status: a National Survey. Presented at the Society for Endocrinology BES’

http://www.nutritionandeggs.co.uk/research/assessment-uk-iodine-status

[Accessed April 2011]

WHO. 2007. ‘Iodine deficiency in Europe; a continuing public health problem’

http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241593960_eng.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/iodine_deficiency/9789241593960/en/

[Accessed April 2011]

Vitamin D

Department of Health. 2009. ‘Vitamin D: an essential nutrient for all… but who is at risk of vitamin D deficiency? Important information for health professionals’ London: Department of Health

Iron

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman’ Clinical guideline. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed May 2011]

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2011. ‘Anaemia: iron deficiency’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/anaemia_iron_deficiency

[Accessed May 2011]

PRODIGY. 2008. ‘Anaemia: iron deficiency’

http://prodigy.clarity.co.uk/anaemia_iron_deficiency/prescribing_information/view_all_prescribing_information#-314077

[Accessed November 2011]

Week 14

Cervical weakness

Melissa S, Mancuso MD, Owen MD. 2010. ‘Prevention of preterm birth based on short cervix: cerclage’ Seminars in Perinatology. Vol 33 (5) pp325-333

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2773447/?tool=pubmed

[Accessed May 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2007. ‘Laparoscopic cerclage for prevention of recurrent pregnancy loss due to cervical incompetence’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/IPG228GuidanceFINAL.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg228

[Accessed May 2011]

Thinking ahead: travel in pregnancy

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2011. ‘Air travel and pregnancy: information for you’ RCOG.

[Accessed 2013]

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/Air%20Travel%20and%20Pregnancy.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/air-travel-and-pregnancy-information-for-you

Week 15

Skin changes

American Osteopathic College of Dermatology. ‘Pyogenic granuloma’

http://www.aocd.org/skin/dermatologic_diseases/pyogenic_granuloma.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Brannon H. 2007. ‘Skin changes in pregnancy’

http://dermatology.about.com/cs/pregnancy/a/pregnancy.htm

[Accessed June 2011]

Vorvick LJ. 2010. ‘Pyogenic granuloma’

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001464.htm

[Accessed June 2011]

Weiss R. 2010. ‘Varicose veins and spider veins’

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1085530-clinical

[Accessed June 2011]

The pregnancy blues

Bennett HA, Einarson A, Taddio A, Koren G, Einarson TR. 2004. ‘Prevalence of depression during pregnancy: systematic review’ Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Vol 103 (4) pp698-709

Borthwick R, Macleod A, Stanley N. 2004. ‘Antenatal Depression: Developing an Effective and Co-ordinated Service Response’ Social Work Department, Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Hull. Available free from: http://www.depression-in-pregnancy.org.uk

[Accessed December 2007]

Dennis C-L, Ross LE, Grigoriadis S. 2007. ‘Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating antenatal depression’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 3. Art. No.: CD006309 http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com

[Accessed December 2007]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2007. ‘Antenatal and postnatal mental health. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence’ Clinical Guideline. Leicester: British Psychological Society and The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11004/30433/30433.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/antenatal-and-postnatal-mental-health-cg45

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: antenatal classes

Active Birth Centre: ‘Welcome to our programme’

http://www.activebirthcentre.com/pb/classesandteachers.shtml

[Accessed June 2011]

Aquanatal Register: ‘Find classes by region’

http://www.aquanatal.co.uk/page5/page5.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Hypnobirthing UK: ‘Find classes in UK’

http://www.hypnobirthing.co.uk/hypnobirthing_classes.shtml

[Accessed June 2011]

NCT: ‘Course finder by postcode’

http://nctpregnancyandbabycare.com/in-your-area/course-finder

[Accessed June 2011]

Week 16

Blood tests

Antenatal Screening Wales. ‘Introduction to antenatal screening tests’

http://www.screeningservices.org.uk/asw/public/screen_tests/screen_tests.asp

[Accessed June 2011]

Department of Health. 2008. ‘NHS fetal anomaly screening programme — screening for Down’s syndrome’ UK National Screening Policy recommendations 2007-2010: model of best practice.

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11254

[Accessed June 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman. Clinical guideline’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

Access via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed April 2011]

National Services Scotland. ‘Pregnancy screening programme’

http://www.nsd.scot.nhs.uk/services/screening/pregnewbscreening/index.html

[Accessed June 2011]

NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme. 2010. ‘Review of model of best practice 2008: Down’s syndrome screening for England’

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11297

[Accessed June 2011]

NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme. 2011. ‘Implementation of Down’s syndrome screening in England’

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11302

[Accessed June 2011]

Amniocentesis

NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme. 2009. ‘Amniocentesis test — information for parents’

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11085

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2011. ‘Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis: information for you’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/Chorionic%20Villus%20Sampling%20and%20Amniocentesis.pdf

Accessed via

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/chorionic-villus-sampling-cvs-what-you-need-know

[Accessed February 2013]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2010. ‘Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling’Clinical Green Top Guideline, 8.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/GT8Amniocentesis0610.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/news/revised-green-top-guideline-amniocentesis-and-chorionic-villus-sampling

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: the rhesus factor

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2008. ‘Routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for women who are rhesus D negative’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/TA156Guidance.pdf

Accessed via:

http://publications.nice.org.uk/routine-antenatal-anti-d-prophylaxis-for-women-who-are-rhesus-d-negative-ta156

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2011. ‘Use of anti-D immunoglobulin for rhesus D prophylaxis’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Green-top guideline, 22.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/GTG22AntiD.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/use-anti-d-immunoglobulin-rh-prophylaxis-green-top-22

[Accessed June 2011]

Week 17

Changes to your breasts

Midwives Information and Resource Service (MIDIRS) 2011. ‘The female breast: structure and changes in pregnancy and lactation’

http://www.midirs.org/development/studentmidwife.nsf/article/E4EA842C617D16258025789B0036FDA7?OpenDocument

[Accessed June 2011]

Q&A

Buckwalter JG, Stanczyk FZ, McCleary CA, et al 1999. ‘Pregnancy, the postpartum, and steroid hormones: effects on cognition and mood’ Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol 24 (1) pp69-84

Crawley RA, Dennison K, Carter C. 2003. ‘Cognition in pregnancy and the first year post-partum’ Psychology and Psychotherapy: theory, research and practice. Vol 76 (1) pp69-84

Christensen H and Leach LS. 2010. ‘Cognition in pregnancy and motherhood: prospective cohort study’ British Journal of Psychiatry. Vol 196 pp126-132

Oatridge A, Saeed N, Hajnal JV, et al 1999. ‘Quantification of brain changes seen on serially registered MRI in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia’ Proceedings from the International Journal of Magnetic Resonance Medicine. Vol 7 p373.

http://cds.ismrm.org/ismrm-1998/PDF5/p1381.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ismrm.org/

[Accessed June 2011]

Oatridge A, Holdcroft A, Saeed N, et al 2002. ‘Change in brain size during and after pregnancy: study in healthy women and women with preeclampsia’ American Journal of Neuroradiology. Vol 23 (1) pp19-26

Pilyoung K, Leckman JF, Mayes LC, et al 2010. ‘The plasticity of human maternal brain: longitudinal changes in brain anatomy during the early postpartum period’ Behavioural Neuroscience. Vol 124 (5) pp695-700

Thinking ahead: blood-test results

NHS National Screening Committee. 2010. ‘Screening tests for you and your baby’

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11245

[Accessed April 2011]

Week 18

Feeling your baby move

Hijazi ZR, East CE. 2009. ‘Factors affecting maternal perception of fetal movement’ Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Vol 64 (7) pp489-497

Lüchinger AB, Hadders-Algra M, van Kan CM, et al 2008. ‘Fetal onset of general movements’ Pediatric Research. Vol 63 (2) pp191-195

de Vries JI, Fong BF. 2006. ‘Normal fetal motility: an overview’ Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 27 (6) pp701-711

Worries about weight gain

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. 2009. ‘Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines’

http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2009/Weight-Gain-During-Pregnancy-Reexamining-the-Guidelines/Resource%20Page%20-%20Weight%20Gain%20During%20Pregnancy.ashx

[Accessed June 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2010. ‘Dietary interventions and physical activity interventions for weight management before, during and after pregnancy’

http://guidance.nice.org.uk/PH27

[Accessed June 2011]

Hair changes

Tunzi M and Gray G. 2007. ‘Common skin conditions during pregnancy’ American Family Physician. Vol 75 (2) pp211-218.

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p211.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Willacy H. 2009. ‘Thyroid disease in pregnancy’

http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Thyroid-Disease-In-Pregnancy.htm

[Accessed June 2011]

Pelvic floor exercises

Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust. 2010. ‘Pelvic floor exercises for women’

http://www.guysandstthomas.nhs.uk/resources/patient-information/maternity/pelvic-floor-exercises-for-women.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.guysandstthomas.nhs.uk/our-services/maternity/patients/support-and-information/maternity-leaflets.aspx

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2006. ‘Urinary incontinence: the management of urinary incontinence in women’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG40fullguideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.nice.org.uk/cg40

[Accessed June 2011]

Salvesen KA, Morkved S. 2004. ‘Randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy’ BMJ. Vol 329 pp378-380

Anomaly scans

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman, Clinical guideline’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed June 2011]

National Screening Committee UK. 2007. ‘Having a Mid-pregnancy Ultrasound Scan?’ NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening.

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11305

[Accessed June 2011]

NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme. 2010. ’18+0 to 20+6 weeks Fetal Anomaly Scan – National standards and guidance for England’

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11218

[Accessed June 2011]

Nelson LD, Grobman WA. 2010. ‘Obstetric morbidity associated with amniotic sheets’ Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 36 (3) pp324-327

Odeh M, Granin V, Kais M, et al 2009. ‘Sonographic fetal sex determination’ Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. Vol 64 (1) pp50-57

Tan KB, Tan TY, Tan JV, et al 2005. ‘The amniotic sheet: a truly benign condition?’ Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 26 (6) pp639-643

Thinking ahead: cordocentesis

Baker PN & Kenny LC. ed. 2011. Obstetrics by Ten Teachers. 19th edition. Hodder Arnold

Week 19

Varicose veins

Bamigboye AA and Smyth RMD. 2007. ‘Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1, CD001066

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab001066.html

[Accessed June 2011]

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2010. ‘Varicose veins’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/varicose_veins/view_whole_topic

Mantle F and Tiran D. 2009. ‘A-Z of complementary and alternative medicine: a guide for health professionals’ Churchill Livingstone, Elsevier

Piles

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2008. ‘Haemorrhoids’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/haemorrhoids#-322345

[Accessed June 2011]

Constipation

Arce DA, Ermocilla CA and Costa H. 2002. ‘Evaluation of constipation’ American Family Physician. Vol 65 (11) pp2283-2290.

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0601/p2283.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0601/p2283.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Jewell D, Young G. 2001. ‘Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2. CD001142.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD001142/frame.html

[Accessed June 2011]

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2008. ‘Constipation’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/constipation#-306105

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: your amnio results

NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme. 2009. ‘Amniocentesis test — information for parents. NHS Fetal Anomaly Screening Programme’

http://fetalanomaly.screening.nhs.uk/getdata.php?id=11085

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2011. ‘Chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis: information for you’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/Chorionic%20Villus%20Sampling%20and%20Amniocentesis.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/chorionic-villus-sampling-cvs-what-you-need-know

[Accessed February 2013]

Week 20

Fundal height

Larma J and Landon MB. 2011. ‘Fetal weight: how large is too large?’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol 204 (6) pp457-458.

http://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378 (11)00309-7/fulltext

[Accessed June 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman, Clinical guideline’ London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed June 2011]

Neilson JP. 1998. ‘Symphysis-fundal height measurement in pregnancy’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1. CD000944

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2002. ‘The Investigation and Management of the Small-for-Gestational-Age Fetus’ Clinical Green Top Guideline, 31.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/GT31SmallGestationalAgeFetus.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/investigation-and-management-small-gestational-age-fetus-green-top-31

[Accessed June 2011]

Backache

Pennick V, Young G. 2007. ‘Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2. CD001139.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD001139/frame.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Vaginal discharge

NHS Choices. 2009. ‘Bacterial vaginosis’

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bacterialvaginosis/Pages/Symptoms.aspx

[Accessed June 2011]

Murray I and Hassall J. 2009. ‘Change and adaptation in pregnancy’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, pp189-225

Thinking ahead: contact lenses

Chippington-Derrick D, Lowdon G and Barlow F. 2004. ‘Caesarean birth: your questions answered’ NCT

http://www.specsavers.co.uk/eye-health/age-and-eyesight/parents-and-pregnancy/

Pizzarello LD. 2003. ‘Refractive changes in pregnancy’ Graefe’s Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophtalmology. Vol 241 (6) pp484-488.

http://www.springerlink.com/content/qde8nky8ayurqql3/

[Accessed June 2011]

Week 21

Nosebleeds

NHS Choices. 2011. ‘Nosebleeds in pregnancy’

http://www.nhs.uk/planners/pregnancycareplanner/pages/nosebleed.aspx

[Accessed June 2011]

Playing music to your baby

Hepper PG and Shahidullah BS. 1994. ‘Development of fetal hearing’ Archives of Disease in Childhood. Vol 71 (2) pp81-87

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/7979483/?tool=pubmed

[Accessed June 2011]

James DK, Spencer CJ and Stepsis BW. 2002. ‘Fetal learning: a prospective randomised controlled study’ Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 20 (5) pp431-438

Kisilevsky BS, Hains SM, Lee K, et al 2003. ‘Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition’ Psychological Science. Vol 14 (3) pp220-224

Querleu D, Renard X, Versyp F, et al 1988. ‘Fetal hearing’ Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Vol 28 (3) pp191-212

Forms for claiming maternity pay

Department for Work and Pensions. 2010. ‘Maternity Certificate (form MAT B1) — Guidance on completion’

http://www.dwp.gov.uk/docs/matb1-guidance.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.dwp.gov.uk/healthcare-professional/guidance/

[Accessed June 2011]

Department for Work and Pensions. 2011. ‘Maternity allowance’

http://www.dwp.gov.uk/advisers/claimforms/ma1_print.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.dwp.gov.uk/publications/specialist-guides/technical-guidance/ni17a-a-guide-to-maternity/maternity-allowance-ma/how-to-claim-ma/

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: changing your mind about where to give birth

Department of Health. 2007. ‘Maternity matters’

http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20130103035958/http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_074199.pdf

[Accessed June 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth, Clinical guideline’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care/

[Accessed June 2011]

Week 22

Stretch marks

Atwal GS, Manku LK, Griffiths CE and Polson DW. 2006. ‘Striae gravidarum in primiparae’ British Journal of Dermatology. Vol 155 (5) pp965-969

Ghasemi A, Gorouhi F, Rahighi-Firoozabadi, et al 2007. ‘Striae gravidarum: associated factors’ Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Vol 21 (6) pp743-746

Osman H, Rubeiz N, Tamim H and Nassar AH. 2007. ‘Risk factors for the development of striae gravidarum’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 196 (1): 62.e1-62.e5

Wahman AJ, Finan MA and Emerson SC. 2000. ‘Striae gravidarum as a predictor of vaginal lacerations at delivery’ Southern Medical Journal. Vol 93 (9) pp873-6

Young G and Jewell D. 1996. ‘Creams for preventing stretch marks in pregnancy’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1. CD000066.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000066/frame.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Q&A

British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) 2007. ‘Statement on the use of diagnostic ultrasound for producing souvenir images or recordings in pregnancy’

http://www.bmus.org/policies-guides/pg-safety05.asp

[Accessed October 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2008. ‘4D ultrasound and whether images tell us about fetal sentience’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/what-we-do/campaigning-and-opinions/briefings-and-qas-/human-fertilisation-and-embryology-bill/brie-3

[Accessed October 2011]

Tonni G, Centini G and Rosignoli L. 2005. ‘Prenatal screening for fetal face and clefting in a prospective study on low-risk population: can 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional ultrasound enhance visualisation and detection rate?’ Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics. Vol 100 (4) pp420-426

Week 23

Q&A

DuBose TJ, Cunyus JA and Johnson L. 1990. ‘Embryonic heart rate and age’ Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography, Vol 6 pp151-157.

http://www.prismnet.com/~dubose/ehr.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Genuis S, Genuis SK and Chang WC. 1996. ‘Antenatal Fetal Heart rate and “Maternal Intuition” as Predictors of Fetal Sex’ Journal of Reproductive Medicine, Vol 41 pp447-449

Carpal tunnel syndrome

O’Connor D, Marshall SC and Massy-Westropp N. 2003. ‘Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.1. CD003219. (Edited [no change to conclusions], published in Issue 1, 2009)

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD003219/frame.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Padua L, Di Pasquale A and Pazzaglia C. 2010. ‘Systematic review of pregnancy-related carpal tunnel syndrome’ Muscle Nerve. Vol 42 (5) pp697-702

Oedema

Bamigboye AA and Smyth RMD. 2007. ‘Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1. CD001066.

http://www2.cochrane.org/reviews/en/ab001066.html

[Accessed June 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman, Clinical guideline’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: preeclampsia

Duley L. 2011. ‘Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and hypertension,’ (updated) BMJ Clinical Evidence.

http://clinicalevidence.bmj.com

[Accessed June 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2011. ‘Multiple pregnancy: the management of twin and triplet pregnancies in the antenatal period’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13571/56497/56497.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=34823

[Accessed October 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘The management of severe pre-eclampsia / eclampsia’ Green-top guideline, 10a. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/management-severe-pre-eclampsiaeclampsia-green-top-10a

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2007. ‘Pre-eclampsia: what you need to know’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/pre-eclampsia-what-you-need-know

[Accessed June 2011]

Week 24

Amniotic fluid

Vance ME. 2009. ‘The placenta’ In: Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Churchill Livingstone, pp147-155

Colostrum

Ackerman B. 2004. ‘Infant feeding’ In: Henderson C, Macdonald S. Mayes. eds. Midwifery: a textbook for midwives, Chapter 3, pp591-627

La Leche League. 2006. ‘What is colostrum? How does it benefit my baby?’

http://www.llli.org/faq/colostrum.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Coping with stress

Fenster et al 1995. ‘Psychological stress in the workplace and spontaneous abortion’ American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol 42 (11) pp1176-1183

Glynn, L., et al 2001. ‘When stress happens matters: effects of earthquake timing on stress responsivity in pregnancy’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 184 (4) pp637–642

Hobel, C.J., et al 1999. ‘Maternal plasma corticotropin- releasing hormone associated with stress at 20 weeks’ gestation in pregnancies ending in preterm delivery’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 180 (1) ppS257–S263

Kramer et al 2009. ‘Stress pathways to spontaneous preterm birth: the role of stressors, psychological distress, and stress hormones’ American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol 169 (11) pp1319-1326

Reprotox. 2008. ‘Stress’ http://www.reprotox.org

[Accessed March 2010]

Rice F, Harold GT, Boivin J, et al 2010. ‘The links between prenatal stress and offspring development and psychopathology: disentangling environmental and inherited influences’ Psychological Medicine. Vol 40 (2) pp335-345

Wisborg K, Barklin A, Hedegaard M, et al 2008. ‘Psychological stress during pregnancy and stillbirth: prospective study’ International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 115 (7) pp882-885

Woods SM, Melville JL, Guo Y, et al 2010. ‘Psychosocial stress during pregnancy’ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 202 (1) p61

Thinking ahead: maternity leave, maternity pay and paternity leave

Directgov. ‘Statutory maternity leave’

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Moneyandworkentitlements/WorkAndFamilies/Pregnancyandmaternityrights/DG_10039631

[Accessed June 2011]

Directgov. ‘Statutory maternity leave: returning to work’

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Moneyandworkentitlements/WorkAndFamilies/Pregnancyandmaternityrights/DG_065153

[Accessed June 2011]

Directgov. ‘Statutory maternity pay’

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/MoneyTaxAndBenefits/BenefitsTaxCreditsAndOtherSupport/Expectingorbringingupchildren/DG_10018741

[Accessed June 2011]

Directgov. ‘Working when pregnant’

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Moneyandworkentitlements/WorkAndFamilies/Pregnancyandmaternityrights/DG_10026556

[Accessed June 2011]

Directgov. ‘Ordinary paternity leave’

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Moneyandworkentitlements/WorkAndFamilies/Paternityrightsintheworkplace/DG_10029398

[Accessed June 2011]

Week 25

Q&A

Birth Choice UK. ‘Hospitals with highest and lowest caesarean rates’ (England 2010, Scotland 2009, Wales 2009)

http://www.birthchoiceuk.com/Professionals/Frame.htm

[Accessed June 2011]

Birth Choice UK. ‘Country comparisons: caesarean rates’ (England 2010, Northern Ireland 2009, Scotland 2009, Wales 2009)

http://www.birthchoiceuk.com/Professionals/Frame.htm

[Accessed June 2011]

Bragg F, Cromwell DA, Edozien LC et al 2010. ‘Variation in rates of caesarean section among English NHS trusts after accounting for maternal and clinical risk: cross sectional study’ British Medical Journal. Vol 41. c5065 doi:10.1136/bmj.c5065

Joseph KS, Allen AC, Dodds L, et al 2005. ‘The Perinatal Effects of Delayed Childbearing’ Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol 105 (6) pp1410-1418.

http://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Fulltext/2005/06000/The_Perinatal_Effects_of_Delayed_Childbearing_.22.aspx

[Accessed June 2011]

Murphy DJ, Stirrat GM, Heron J, ALSPAC Study Team. 2002. ‘The relationship between caesarean section and subfertility in a population-based sample of 14,541 pregnancies’ Human Reproduction. Vol 17 pp1914-1917

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth, Clinical guideline’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care/

[Accessed June 2011]

Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology. 2002. ‘Caesarean sections’

http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn184.pdf

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2009. ‘Caesarean section: consent advice’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/CA7-15072010.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/caesarean-section-consent-advice

[Accessed June 2011]

Thomas J and Paranjothy S. 2001. ‘The National Sentinel Caesarean Section Audit Report’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Clinical Effectiveness Unit. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/files/rcog-corp/uploaded-files/nscs_audit.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.rcog.org.uk/our-profession/good-practice/audit

[Accessed June 2011]

Your qualifying week

Directgov. ‘Statutory maternity pay: how to claim’

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/MoneyTaxAndBenefits/BenefitsTaxCreditsAndOtherSupport/Expectingorbringingupchildren/DG_175881

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: water birth

Cluett ER and Burns E. 2009. ‘Immersion in water in labour and birth’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2. CD000111.

www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com

[Accessed September 2009]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2007. ‘Intrapartum care: care of healthy women and their babies during childbirth, Clinical guideline’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG55FullGuideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/intrapartum-care/

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists /RCM. 2006. ‘Immersion in water during labour and birth’

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/immersion-water-during-labour-and-birth

Week 26

Extra scans in mid pregnancy

Midwives Information and Resource Service. ‘Antenatal screening for congenital abnormalities: helping women to choose’ MIDIRS Informed Choice Leaflet.

Accessed 2012 via:

http://www.infochoice.org/ic/ic.nsf/RevLeaflets?OpenForm

Headaches

British Association for the Study of Headache (BASH) 2010. ‘Guidelines for all healthcare professionals in the diagnosis and management of migraine, tension-type, cluster and medication-overuse headache’

http://217.174.249.183/upload/NS_BASH/2010_BASH_Guidelines.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.bash.org.uk/guidelines/

[Accessed June 2011]

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2010a. ‘Clinical topic: Migraine.’

www.cks.nhs.uk

[Accessed June 2011]

Leg cramps

NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2008. ‘Leg cramps’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/leg_cramps/management/scenario_assessment#-338880

[Accessed June 2011]

Young G and Jewell D. 2002. ‘Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy’ Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1. Art. No.: CD000121 (Edited, no change to conclusion 2010)

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD000121/pdf_standard_fs.html

[Accessed June 2011]

Skin problems

Fraser DM, Cooper MA. eds. 2009. Myles Textbook for Midwives 15th Edition. Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier pp215-216

Psoriasis

British Association of Dermatologists. 2009. ‘Psoriasis: an overview’

http://www.bad.org.uk/Portals/_Bad/Patient%20Information%20Leaflets%20%28PILs%29/Psoriasis%20-%20an%20Overview%20Update%20Mar%202009.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.bad.org.uk/site/864/default.aspx

[Accessed June 2011]

CKS. 2010. ‘Psoriasis’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/psoriasis#-406302

[Accessed June 2011]

Skin soreness

Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. ‘General information on skin conditions in pregnancy’

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003223.htm

Spots

CKS. 2010. ‘Acne’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/acne_vulgaris/management/scenario_moderate_acne/treatment_of_moderate_acne#-383386

[Accessed June 2011]

Urticaria

NHS Choices. 2010. ‘Urticaria’

http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Nettle-rash/Pages/Treatment.aspx

[Accessed June 2011]

Itching

Clinical Knowledge Summaries. 2010. ‘Itch in pregnancy’

http://www.cks.nhs.uk/itch_in_pregnancy/view_whole_topic

[Accessed June 2011]

Crafter, H. 2009. ‘Problems of pregnancy’ In: Fraser DM and Cooper MA. eds. Myles Textbook for Midwives. 15th ed. Churchill Livingstone, pp333-359

Lewis VJ. 2005. ‘Skin problems in pregnancy’

http://www.childbirthexperience.ca/media/Skin_Problems_in_Pregnancy.pdf

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: cord blood

Department of Health. 2009. ‘Cord blood banking in the UK: an international comparison of policy and practice’ Technopolis Ltd for Department of Health.

[Accessed June 2011]

Human Tissue Authority. 2010. ‘Position statement on cord blood collection’

www.hta.gov.uk

[Accessed June 2011]

Human Tissue Authority. 2010. ‘Cord blood collection FAQS for parents’

http://www.hta.gov.uk/legislationpoliciesandcodesofpractice/positionstatementoncordbloodcollection.cfm

[Accessed June 2011]

Human Tissue Authority. 2010. ‘HTA voices concern over unlawful cord blood collection’

http://www.hta.gov.uk/newsandevents/htanews.cfm/838-HTA-voices-concerns-over-unlawful-cord-blood-collection.html

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘Umbilical cord blood banking’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Scientific Advisory Committee, Opinion Paper 2 (revised) http://www.rcog.org.uk

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2006. ‘Cord blood banking: information for you’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

www.rcog.org.uk

[Accessed June 2011]

Week 27

Gestational diabetes

Diabetes UK. ‘Eating well’

http://www.diabetes.org.uk/Guide-to-diabetes/Healthy_lifestyle/Eating_Well/

[Accessed June 2011]

International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) 2010. ‘International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Recommendations on the Diagnosis and Classification of Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy’ Diabetes Care. Vol 33 (3) 676-682.

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/3/676.full.pdf+html

Accessed via:

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/3/676.extract

[Accessed June 2011]

National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health. 2008. ‘Antenatal care: routine care for the healthy pregnant woman, Clinical guideline’ Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press.

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG62fullguideline.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.ncc-wch.org.uk/guidelines/guidelines-programme/guidelines-programme-published/antenatal-care/

[Accessed June 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2008. ‘Diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from pre-conception to the postnatal period’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11946/41320/41320.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.nice.org.uk/CG063

[Accessed June 2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2011. ‘Review of Clinical Guideline (CG63) — Diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period’

http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/11946/54657/54657.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.nice.org.uk/CG063

[Accessed June 2011]

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. 2010. ‘Diagnosis and Treatment of Gestational Diabetes’SAC Opinion Paper 23.

http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinical-guidance/diagnosis-and-treatment-gestational-diabetes-sac-opinion-paper-23

[Accessed June 2011]

Thinking ahead: feeding your baby

Breastfeeding

Unicef.

http://www.unicef.org.uk/BabyFriendly/News-and-Research/Research/Breastfeeding-research—An-overview/

[Accessed June 2011]

Formula feeding

NHS Choices. 2011. ‘Guide to bottle feeding’ Unicef / BFI/ Food Standards Agency.

http://www.unicef.org.uk/Documents/Baby_Friendly/Leaflets/4/guide_to_bottle_feeding.pdf

Accessed via:

http://www.unicef.org.uk/BabyFriendly/Resources/Resources-for-parents/Department-of-Health-bottle-feeding-leaflet/

[Accessed February 2013]

Inverted nipples

Mohrbacher N, Stock J. Eds. 2003. ‘La Leche League International: The Breastfeeding Answer Book’ 3rd Revised Edition. USA: La Leche League International. pp115 and 141

 

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